Understanding Dry Needling: A Physiotherapy Perspective

Blogs, / By Winsen Citra

Dry needling has become an increasingly popular treatment within physiotherapy practices around the world. This technique involves the insertion of thin, sterile needles into the skin, targeting areas of muscle known as trigger points. Despite its growing popularity, there is often confusion surrounding dry needling, its benefits, and how it differs from other forms of therapy. In this blog post, we’ll delve into what dry needling is, how it works, and what you can expect if you opt for this treatment.

What is Dry Needling?

Dry needling, also known as intramuscular stimulation, is a modern treatment designed to ease muscular pain. Its popularity is partly due to its ability to provide relief for a range of musculoskeletal problems. Unlike acupuncture, which is based on traditional Chinese medicine and focuses on balancing the body’s energy flow, dry needling is rooted in Western medical principles and aims to directly target muscle tissue, affecting muscle tension, and pain levels.

How Does Dry Needling Work?

The process involves a physiotherapist inserting a fine, sterile needle directly into a trigger point (a tight, painful point within a muscle). Despite what you might think, the procedure is usually not painful. Some patients may feel a slight pinch as the needle is inserted, followed by a sensation known as a “muscle twitch response.” This is a good sign and indicates that the needle has successfully stimulated the trigger point.

The goal of dry needling is to release the knot and relieve any muscle pain or spasms. The needles are typically left in place for a short period, ranging from a few seconds to several minutes. The practitioner may manipulate the needles to achieve the best results, which can lead to an immediate improvement in flexibility, strength, and pain reduction.

Benefits of Dry Needling

Dry needling can offer several benefits, particularly for individuals suffering from chronic pain, stiffness, and muscle tension. Some of the key benefits include:

  1. Pain Reduction: By deactivating trigger points, dry needling can reduce pain levels in the affected areas.
  2. Improved Mobility: Patients often experience improved range of motion and flexibility following treatment.
  3. Decreased Muscle Tension: The technique helps to relax tight muscles, which can be particularly beneficial for athletes or those with muscle strains.
  4. Faster Recovery: Dry needling can speed up the recovery process by improving blood flow to the targeted area.

What Conditions Can Dry Needling Treat?

Dry needling can be an effective treatment for various conditions, including but not limited to:

  • Chronic back pain
  • Neck pain
  • Shoulder impingement
  • Tennis elbow
  • Headaches and migraines
  • Sciatica
  • Plantar fasciitis
  • Muscle strains

What to Expect During a Dry Needling Session

Before starting treatment, your physiotherapist will conduct a thorough assessment to determine if dry needling is appropriate for you. They will discuss your medical history, current symptoms, and treatment goals.

During the session, you’ll be asked to sit or lie in a position that allows easy access to the affected area. After the needling is completed, your physiotherapist may perform additional treatments such as manual therapy or prescribe exercises to further enhance the treatment’s effectiveness.

Is Dry Needling Safe?

When performed by a trained and certified practitioner, dry needling is a safe and generally well-tolerated procedure. However, like all treatments, it can have side effects, although they are typically minor and short-lived. These may include muscle soreness, minor bleeding or bruising at the insertion sites, and temporary fatigue.


Dry needling is a valuable tool in the physiotherapist’s arsenal for managing and treating pain. It is important to consult with a qualified healthcare professional to determine whether dry needling is suitable for your specific condition. If you’re struggling with muscle pain or stiffness, dry needling might be the treatment that helps you get back to your daily activities with greater ease and comfort.

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Winsen Citra
Principal Physiotherapist

Winsen graduated from University of Melbourne in 2012. He worked in organisations of various sizes such as Singapore General Hospital, Pain Relief Practice, and Physioclinic before working at Elevate Physiotherapy. He specialises in sports and musculoskeletal injuries and has worked with athletes of various sports such as fencing, dancing, dragon boating, and cycling.

In his spare time he enjoys singing and playing chess.